P.O. Box 1979
hoa, Hawai’I 96778





© 2004 HyTech
All rights reserved to the sources

Legacy for Life -HyTech


Some major publications:

JPL Electrostatic Levitator              
For Zero-G Materials Processing     

CalTech Space Settlement Conference 
Michael Hyson (Editor)                    

Neural Remapping Paper

(Work at Cal Tech)



Michael T. Hyson, Ph.D.
Research Director / Co-Founder
Sirius Institute
P. O. Box 1979
Pahoa, Hawai’i 96778

Founder / President - HyTech Hawai'I

Webmaster for:www.planetpuna.com and
Sirius Institute (website at: www.planetpuna.com/sirius

Current Project Summary for the Sirius Institute may be found at:   www.planetpuna.com/VOD19

Michael T. Hyson

- BIO -

Born July 5, 1948 in Rockford, Illinois. Michael spent his early life in Winnebago, Illinois on a small farm. He was greatly inspired by his father, Eugene [a microbiologist who helped develop yellow fever vaccine].

His early interests were art, astronomy, space travel and science, especially biology. Pursuits like falconry, keeping pets, rock climbing, and spelunking led to keeping pet bats. Because bats and dolphins both use sonar, he soon found the books of John Lilly.

At age 15, he went to Port Aransas, Texas and trained dolphins with his brother Robert. Fascinated with these creatures, he set out to be a marine biologist. In 1964 he studied sharks at Cape Haze Marine Lab, Sarasota, Florida with Eugenie Clark and the next summer, went to Alaska to study arctic biology.

In 1966 Hyson entered the University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida to study biology and medicine. Intent on being a field ethologist, Hyson studied rodent behaviour with population biologist David van Vleck, ethology with Art Myrburg [a Konrad Lorenz student], took honors history with John Knoblock, and continued medical studies by working as a medical and x-ray technician.

In 1970, he met Thorne Shipley and became fascinated with the study of the brain and visual perception. He learned that computers could draw pictures and created the first random-dot stereograms outside of Bell Labs for Shipley's course. Based on this work, Shipley invited him to enter graduate school in neurophysiology where he also worked with William Evoy, a specialist in crayfish locomotion.

After a thesis on stereoscopic vision earned him a masters degree, he went on to work with Howard Teas, a tropical botanist and remote sensing expert. He created a computer neural net model of the visual system intended to automatically map plant species with the [then] new remote sensing satellites for his Ph. D. While this goal proved ambitious, the model showed the importance of non-linear processes in the brain and the usefulness of neural nets for pattern recognition and robotics. His continued work with Shipley, at the Mailman Center for Child Development included EEG and evoked response experiments indicating dyslexia and other problems in children involve errant processing of signals arriving simultaneously from different senses.

While completing his master's thesis, he met Henry Truby, a linguist and acoustic phonetician once part of John Lilly's Communication Research Institute, where attempts were made to teach dolphins to speak English. Truby and Ric O'Feldman [a trainer for the Flipper TV series] formed the World Dolphin Foundation and kept the dolphins Florida and Liberty in the Mashta Island Lagoon, some 1000 yards from Nixon's Key Biscayne Whitehouse. Hyson joined the group and swam many hours with the dolphins while developing dolphin communication interfaces and other projects.

After completing his Ph.D. in 1976, and the release of Florida and Liberty in the Bahamas, he left Florida to join California Institute of Technology's BioInformation Systems Lab to research non-linear aspects of brain function with Derek Fender.

At the urging of Bela Julesz, [originator of the random dot stereogram and, later, the first recipient of the MacArthur Prize] he made precise records of eye motions during stereoscopic vision and showed the brain was able to fuse stereo images which were up to 8 degrees apart on the retinas, proving the brain uses dynamic "software" more than heretofore appreciated.

About this time, he became concerned about nuclear reactor safety and designed walking waldos with Dr. James Grote for use in nuclear reactors. With Cal Tech and Combustion engineering, he jointly proposed to build robot/waldo walkers [based on how crayfish walk] to the NSF, DOE, and EPRI.

Looking to the future, he began to dream of living in space and applying his knowledge of biology and robotics to this goal. After organizing a Cal Tech Space Settlement Conference in 1978 which was attended by major players in the space colony movement, he joined a NASA Summer Study exploring self-reproducing factories on the moon in 1980.

That same summer he joined Gary Hudson's GCH Astronautics [developers of the first private rocket in the U.S]. While there he developed telepresence and waldo concepts for space operations and helped develop a robot arm.

In the fall of 1980, he joined Cal Tech's Jet Propulsion Lab in the Physics and Containerless Processing section. He helped develop electrostatic levitators for containerless processing in orbit. The devices were tested on the NASA KC-135 and he experienced some 10 hours of zero-gravity.

He initiated a project that created uniform plastic microspheres [the most uniform spheres ever created in the 150-300 micron size range] and explored their application to AIDS and bone marrow transplants.

He also researched free-flying teleoperators and neuromagnetometry - a way to detect the magnetic fields of the brain, consulted with Yamaha on motorcycle safety and robotics, and helped develop some of the first orange "blue blocking" sunglasses with Suntiger Biomedical Optics, as well as other projects.

He continued to push for space settlement and low-cost private launchers as a member of the L-5 Society's Citizen's Advisory Council on Space Policy. Council reports to President Reagan resulted in the SDI programs. He helped found the Lunar Society, a group pursuing a private Lunar settlement.

In 1987, after the Challenger disaster, he left NASA to help make reliable private orbital rockets.

In 1988, he joined Gary Hudson's Pacific American Launch Systems as Research Director helping design and build the Liberty 1-A engine for testing at Edward's AFB. His logistics model showed a lunar settlement could be built for under a billion dollars (or less) using Hudson's Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) Phoenix rocket. The project ended before the Liberty engine was fired.

Following this, he helped write briefings for the Citizen's Advisory Council that eventually started major SSTO rocket developments. The MacDonald-Douglas' DC-X Delta Clipper rocket that resulted was recently featured on the cover of Popular Science magazine. The DC-X is substantially the same as Gary Hudson's designs for a mini-Phoenix. On June 7, 1996, he attended a test launch of the DC-X from White Sands, NM.

With plans for orbit on hold, he decided to pursue his first love, the dolphins. This was facilitated when he met Paradise Newland, (mother, dolphin researcher, producer, writer etc) and her son Tiger Stanley in January, 1990. Inspired by Tiger, initiated by Paradise, the Sirius Institute became a reality when he became its research director and the Institute was relocated to Hawai'i to pursue its various projects with free dolphins.

In April, whilst attending the K.W.I.C. conference in the Keys, he had the opportunity to reconnect with one of his swimming partners, Dreamer, at Dolphin's Plus in Florida. She healed an old neck injury with her sonar. This event so impressed him he determined to solve the dolphin communication problem, create human/dolphin habitats where dolphin sound healing and dolphin attended underwater births can be experienced, and integrate dolphins into human societies. He created the Song Swimmer musical computer interface that allows dolphins to play musical instruments and control computers using their sounds.

The Song Swimmer interface was demonstrated at the 3rd International Dolphin and Whale Conference in Kona, Hawaii in 1991. John Lilly commented that the work was "excellent and exciting".

A tape "Dolphin Valentine" has been produced. These results open the way for full, objective communications with the dolphins as well as artistic endeavors such as interspecies concerts and other performances where the dolphins compose and perform their own music in conjunction with human musicians.

A next step for him is to put dolphins on the virtual reality nets so that anyone, anywhere, can have their own real-time dolphin experiences and to validate dolphin assisted healing.

Recently, our emphasis has been on establishing a dolphin attended underwater and natural birth camp here in Hawai’i. A summary of these concepts is located at: www.planetpuna.com/VOD19


Curriculum Vitae

Michael T. Hyson, Ph. D.

Sirius Institute
P. O. Box 1979
Pahoa, Hawai’i 96778


Email: siriusinstitute@yahoo.com or michaelhyson@yahoo.com

Born July 5, 1948, Rockford, Illinois

Knowledge - dolphins, space habitation, robotics, computer vision, binocular vision, occulomotor system, neural models, visual perception, animal behavior, ethnobotany, psychoneuroimmunology

Education -

Ph.D. Biology University of Miami Jan. 1976

M.S. Biology University of Miami June 1973

B.S. , Biology University of Miami June 1970

Honors And Awards -

National Research Service Award [California Institute of Technology] -1977-1980

Maytag Fellow in Biology - 1973-1975

National Science Foundation Traineeship in Biology - 1971-1972

Bausch & Lomb Science Award 1966

First Prize Illinois Science Fair 1961

Memberships -

Sirius Institute [a founder]
World Dolphin Foundation [a founder]
The Lunar Society [a founder]
Citizen's Advisory Council on National Space Policy
Friends of the Red Road [Board Member]
Association for Research in Vision and Optometry
Optical Society of America
Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers
American Society of Photogrammetry
L-5 Society
Lighter-than Air Society
Los Angeles Mycological Society
Center for Shamanic Studies

Military Service -

USNR (Honorable Discharge) 1970 June-December

General -

Ten hours of weightless flight; reading knowledge of German.

Have traveled in continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii, Bahamas, Belize and Mexico. I play classical guitar, hike, sail, and scuba dive, and have fought in armor with broadswords

Summary -

I am interested in diverse topics from space to dolphins. My emphasis has been on understanding the brain and how it works; developing models of its operation; understanding other species, and starting space migration

I have experience in several fields:

Biology -

Neurosciences, visual perception, stereoscopic vision, neural net models, eye safety, development of UV and blue- blocking sunglasses, EEG and evoked response studies, SQUID neuromagnetometry, sound analysis, sonograms, dolphin studies and interspecies communication, ecology and environmental studies, ecological systems modeling, ethology, nutrition, life extension, immunology, affinity chromatography, embryology, microbiology, mycology, bacteriology, hematology, and X-ray, algology,

Have explored -

Alaska, Florida Everglades, reefs in Florida, Belize, Hawaii.

Studied: mice, snakes, crows, falcons, kestrels, prairie falcons, and various hawk and owls, raccoons, foxes, a margay, kinkajous, squirrels, praying mantises, caves, bats, and sonar, dolphins, sharks and fish, skindiving, marine biology.

Aerospace -

Ten hours of weightless flight; rocket engine development; engine test stand construction; lunar logistics models; Zero-G operations; containerless processing, electrostatic levitation; production of uniform microspheres; teleoperation; test stand development; space transport costing and logistics; public space policy reports; a founder of the Lunar Society; speaker to L-5 and Cal Tech and UCSB space Club; advocate of private space industry and settlement.

Remote Sensing -

Aerial photography, photoanalysis, ecological survey, image analysis by computer; stereo mapping, transects etc.

Computers, Robotics, AI -

Image processing, robot vision, computer graphics, servo control; have designed waldos, walking machines, automated mowers, man-machine interfaces, head-aimed televisions; electrostatic levitation using an Apple II; servo control for a robot arm; emulators for electrostatic controls; programs measuring droplets; stereogram display and plotting programs; a computer retinal model, speech analysis & synthesis; designed a telephone modem network; for studies of evoked brain potentials, and a multi-company accounting system.


Experienced with PC’s, Macintosh, Apple II, IBM PC's, IBM 370, IBM 1130, IBM 7040; Univac 1106, Univac 1108; PDP 11/20, 11/45, Vax 11 (with Unix)


Super Card, Hyper Card, Pascal, Modula-2, Forth, C, Fortran, Basic and in Assemblers: Apple 6502 ; PDP 11/20 and PDP11/45.

Entertainment -

Consultant to WED on EPCOT space colony display. Technical review of Star Trek II & III Scripts, developed 3 story outlines for Trek IV. Numerous lectures on space to Adventurers' Club and other conferences. Combat improvisations, skits, costume and crowd control at Renaissance Faire, broadsword fighting; knowledge of swords, armor, history.


Latest publication: Sirius Institute Projects Summary at: www.planetpuna.com/VOD19

Webmaster www.planetpuna.com< (see various documents there)

Hyson, M. T., Dolphin Restoration Experiments, Sirius Institute, 1996

Hyson, M. T., et al., Red Road Status Report, Friends of the Red Road, 1995

Hyson, M. T., Dolphin/People Interaction Systems, Sirius Institute, 1994

Hyson, M. T., Dolphin Telephone Call, Sirius Institute, 1993

Hyson, M. T. The Song Swimmer Musical Communication Interface and Dolphin Music - Presented at the 3rd International Dolphin and Whale Conference, Kona Surf Hotel, Wk of Feb. 14, 1992.

Hyson, M. T., Joy Stanley, Charles Lucy Voice of the Dolphin Newsletters

Joy Stanley and M. T. Hyson - Sirius Institute Proposals

Hyson, M. T., SARV - LTA Blimp/Airplane design, for George Huthsteiner, Los Angeles

Hyson, M. T. , Dyslexia and the Cerebellum for Stillman Dyslexia Center, Tarzana, CA

Hyson, M. T. Eye Reflectance Study for Spectra Physics and Till Liepman

Hyson, M. T., Hy Tech Window - Newsletter

Hudson, G. C., and Hyson, M. T., (1988) A Single Stage to Orbit Vertical Take-Off and Vertical Landing (SSTO-VTOVL) Space Transport for Lunar Settlement and Resupply, In: Symposium on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century April; 5-7 1988, Lunar & Planetary Institute 3301 NASA Rd. 1, Houston Texas.

Hyson, M. T. and Grote, J. R., (1988) Grasping Robotics, Baen Books, New York (in prep.)

Rhim, W. K., Hyson, M. T. et al. (1987) Containerless Polymeric Microsphere Production for Biomedical Applications, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 87:225-230.

Rhim, W. K., Chung, S. K., Hyson, M. T., Elleman, D. D. (1987) Charged Drop Levitators and Their Applications, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 87:103-112.

Hyson, M. T., Trimpi, A. et al. (1987) A Feasibility Study for an Automated Autonomous Lawn Maintenance Vehicle, Hy Tech, Glendale Ca. [for Yamaha Motors Corp.]

Fender, D. H. and Hyson, M. T. (1987) A Proposal for Automated Walking Battlefield Robots, Hy Tech (submitted to Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

Pournelle, J. E., Ransom, J. et al. (M.T. Hyson Associate Editor) (1986) America - A Spacefaring Nation?, A Report to the President of the Citizen's Advisory Council on National Space Policy, L-5 Society Press, Tucson, Arizona.

Rhim, W. K., Chung, S. K., Hyson, M. T., Elleman, D.D. (1986) Large Charged Drop Levitation Against Gravity, Conf. Rec. IEEE Industry Applications Soc. Annual Meeting.

Rhim, W. K., Collender M., Hyson, M. T., Simms, W.T. and Elleman, D. D., (1985) Development of an Electrostatic Positioner for Space Material Processing, Rev. Sci. Instruments 56:306-317.

Hyson, M. T., Julesz, B. and Fender, D. H. (1985) Eye Movements and Neural Remapping During Binocular Fusion, In: Adaptive Processes in Visual and Occulomotor Systems (E. L. Keller and D. S. Sea, Ed's) Pergammon Press, New York.

Hyson, M. T. and Jaffe, L. D., (1984) Teleoperation, Robotics and Man - an Overview, In:Teleoperator Maneuvering Technology Requirements and Assessment for Proximity Operations (P. A. Penzo and S. J. Boulton, Ed.s) Jet Propulsion Laboratory Report No. D-1419, June, 1984.

Hyson, M. T., (1983) Assured Survival, Invited paper in: Space and Assured Survival, J. E. Pournelle (Chairman) A Report to the President of the Citizen's Advisory Council on National Space Policy, Sep. 28, 1983.

Hyson, M. T. (1983) An Automated "Smart" Shock Absorber, Hy Tech, Glendale, Ca. [for Yamaha Motors Corp.]

Hyson, M. T., Julesz, B. and Fender, D. H. (1983) Eye Movements and Neural Remapping During Fusion of Misaligned Random Dot Stereograms, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73:1665-1673.

Hyson, M. T. (1982) Report on the State of Robotics, Hy Tech, Glendale, Ca. [for Yamaha Motors Corp.]

Hyson, M. T. (1982), A Study of Motorcycle Conspicuity Using Ethological Principles,

Hy Tech, Glendale, Ca. [for Yamaha Motors Corp.]

Hyson, M. T. (Editor) (1981) The Caltech Space Settlement Conference, proceedings of a conference held July 1978 at California Institute of Technology, published by Hy Tech, Glendale, Ca.

Hyson. M. T., (1979) Sunlight Reflections from Solar Power Satellites or Solares Mirrors Should Not Harm the Eyes, In: Proc. of AIAA Conference 'Remember the Future' (Stan Kent, Ed.) held July 20-21 1979, San Francisco.

Hyson, M. T. (1976) A Model of the Visual System for Tree Species Recognition, Dissertation, U. of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.

Shipley, T. and Hyson, M. T. (1977) Amplitude Decrements in Brain Potentials in Man Evoked by Repetitive Auditory, Visual and Intersensory Stimulation, Sensory Processes 1:338-353

Hyson, M. T. (1973) The Perception of Random Dot Stereograms, Thesis, U. of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.


Harmonic Color Code Systems (Sound -to- Vision Mapping Systems) [1992] Myron Blazak, Michael T. Hyson, Charles Lucy

Process for the Mass Production of Polymeric Microspheres by Drop Spraying, Freezing, Gamma Irradiation and Slow Thawing (1986) W. K. Rhim, M. T. Hyson, S. K. Chung, M. Colvin and M. Chang, Case No. 17023 (U. S. Patent in Progress)

Containerless Synthesis of Polymeric Microspheres (1984) A. Rembaum, W. K. Rhim, M. T. Hyson and M. Chang, JPL Case No. 16551.


Current Positions:

Research Director, Sirius Institute

Consultant to Na P’oe Ho'a Aina

Member, Citizens' Advisory Council on National Space Policy

President, Hy Tech Hawai'I

Past Positions:

May to September 1989 - Associate Editor, Brain/Mind Bulletin

March 1988 to March 1989 - Research Director

Pacific American Launch Systems

115 Constitution Drive

Menlo Park, CA 94025

Developed logistics and cost models for settlement of the moon using the Phoenix SSTO vehicle. Developed and implemented ablator molding techniques for the Liberty 1-A engine. Performed general information gathering in many areas. Represented the company through presentations at conferences. Prepared for engine test and hot firings at Edwards AFB.

[August 1980 to present]

President , Hy Tech

1155 N Verdugo Rd. Suite C

Glendale, CA

Consultant to:

J. E. Pournelle and Associates, Studio City, CA [space policy, computers]

PanaWorld, Irvine, CA, [technology developments]

Suntiger Biomedical Optics, N. Hollywood, CA, [vision safety and perception]

Black Bear Electronics, Sylmar, CA [laser printer survey]

Lama Engineering, Pasadena, CA [brain wave analysis]

I-Kron, Santa Barbara, CA [water desalinization]

Yamaha Motors Corp. [robotic and motorcycle safety]

Venture Technology [Sunglass technology and various topics]

Internal Hy Tech Projects:

The Hy Tech Window - A Newsletter

Psychoneuroimmunology and sound

Immunomodulation by plants

September 1980 to August 1987

Design Engineer at JPL

Hy Tech contract to Jet Propulsion Labs:

Microspheres : Developed containerless uniform microsphere production for affinity chromatography

Electrostatic levitation : helped develop a contactless positioning system. Work included programming the electrostatic servo systems; electrostatic field and force models; design and construction of KC-135 flight hardware for weightless testing; specification and purchase of computer hardware; image analysis software for analysis of drop shape; and research on various topics.

We demonstrated levitation in the vertical axis in one-G of a 0.1 gram ball 1.0 cm in diameter using a CCD camera to detect the ball position and an Apple computer to control plate voltages through a D/A. We have developed a servo using a tetrahedral array of electrodes. It has successfully levitated a density 3 sample in zero-G conditions. We have also levitated liquid water drops and water/air compound drops.

Weightless Flight : I have flown ~1000 weightless parabolas in the KC135 to test the positioning system in zero-G. This amounts to 10 hours of weightlessness.

Teleoperators : Worked on a study of free flying teleoperators for use from the Shuttle and from a Space Station. I have been reviewing teleoperator history and the state of vision, touch and other sensors and manipulation techniques for use in the Teleoperator Maneuvering System (TMS). I am especially interested in telepresence and head-aimed displays.

Neuromagnetometry : Developed proposals for a multi-sensor SQUID to detect brain waves, Performed test measurements of EEG and evoked responses using a SQUID neuromagnetometer.

Hy Tech Consultations:

Eye Safety Consultant to Suntiger Biomedical Optics and Venture Technology to design a new form of sunglass filter that protects the eye from UV and blue light while maximizing transmitted useful light. (Patent applied for);

Motorcycle Safety/ Robotics Consultant toYamaha Motors Corporation on motorcycle conspicuity, and robotics and robot vision, automated vehicles and other topics; G.C.H. Astronautics on computer aided design and manufacture, robotics, and rocket guidance and control.

June 1980-March 1988 Consultant

Robotics : Consultant to G. C. H., Sunnyvale, Ca.

Developed servo software and shaft encoder software and helped to design a small robot arm controlled by the Apple computer. If produced, it would sell for some $4000-6000 less computer and lift up to 10 kg.

Nuclear Reactor Walkers : We also developed proposals for a walking teleoperator with arms, legs and a head aimed television display for Combustion Engineering, DOE, NSF, and EPRI. for nuclear reactor safety.

June-August 1980 NASA Fellow

University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California

Robotics/ Space Settlement: I was one of 20 participants in a NASA summer study to explore the feasibility of robotics and automation in space. I worked on concepts of remote sensing, extraterrestrial material use, self reproducing machines, teleoperation and life support in a space station. See:


June 1977-June 1980 Research Associate

Bioinformation Systems, 286-80 Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125

(with Derek Fender)

Vision Research: Responsible for research projects on eye movements during binocular vision and reading. Measured the tolerance of the brain to vergence error in the fusion of random dot stereograms; measured motion detection thresholds during stabilized vision.

June 1976-June 1977 Consultant

Kent Watkins and Associates, 444 Brickell Ave., Miami, Florida.

Modem Systems: Prepared specifications and ordered communications equipment to connect several minicomputer systems via phone as part of a HUD demonstration program to improve public housing authority accounting procedures.

Feb.-Mar. 1976 Data Analyst

Biostatistics: Dr. Frank Briese, Biostatistics Dept., U. of Miami, Miami, Fl.

Processed Florida Visitor's Health Care Study data using SPSS Statistical Package.

1973-1976 Research Assistant

Dr. Howard J. Teas, Mangrove Research Lab., Dept. of Biology,

U. of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124

Image Analysis, Neural Modeling, Ecological Survey: Developed image processing software for the analysis of texture patterns for the classification of vegetation in aerial photos. Experience in aerial photography and interpretation, ecological survey, developed a camera mount that allowed 35mm stereo photography from a Cessna 172 aircraft.

1973-1975 Research Assistant

Dr. Thorne Shipley

Intersensory Lab., Mailman Center for Child Development, Miami, Florida

Evoked Response Studies: Studied averaged evoked brain potentials in response to light, sound, and touch. Aided in development of "burst" stimulus techniques, data analysis, equipment design and maintenance, experiment design and execution for testing infant sensory functions.

June-Dec. 1973 Programmer

William Forsyth, Jr., Automated Services Co., Miami, Florida

Developed multi-company accounting software in Fortran on IBM 1130

1971-1974 Scientific Liaison and Consultant

Dr. H. M. Truby

World Dolphin Foundation and Language and Linguistics

Research Lab. 7050 Sunset Drive, So. Miami, Fl.

Dolphin Research: A founder of the World Dolphin Foundation. Sonogram analysis, phonetic transcription, frequency filtration of humans and dolphins, observed and worked with dolphins and interspecies communication.

1970-1973 Research Assistant

Dr. Thorne Shipley, Perception Laboratory, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miami, Florida.

Vision Research: Measured the width of Mach Bands, analyzed stereo acuity data, developed computer programs to generate random dot stereograms, measured stereo detection latencies as a function of target areas and degree of rivalry.

Summer 1969 Bacteriological Technician

Veterans Administration Hospital, Miami, Florida

Cultured and identified bacterial species as part of a training program.

Summer 1968 Medical Technician

Veterans Administration Hospital, Miami, Florida

Experience with histological sectioning and staining, urinalysis, CBC's and blood drawing, and radiology including angiography, pneumoencephalograms and chest, back and skull X-rays.

1967-1968 Research Assistant

Dr. David Van Vleck, Dept. of Biology, U. of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida

Ethology and Population Studies: Worked on electromyography of rat uterus to determine how IUD's work. Studied the social behavior of two species of rodents sharing the same range with stop-action video tapes.

Summer 1965 NSF Trainee

NSF Summer Science Training Program in Arctic Biology,

U. of Alaska, College, Alaska

Arctic Biology: Travelled through much of Alaska, as far as the Arctic Circle. Studied behavioral and physiological adaptations of animals and plants to arctic conditions. Measured the primary productivity of Smith Lake with Dr. John Barsdate.

Summer 1964 NSF Trainee

NSF Summer Science Training Program in Marine Biology,

Cape Haze Marine Lab., Sarasota, Florida

Marine Biology: Studied physiology and behavior of marine organisms, operant conditioning for study of sensory capabilities of sharks, with Drs. Eugenie Clark and Harold Humm. Made a time-lapse film of the embryological development of a hermaphroditic fish, Serranus subligaris.